8. MICROSOFT WINDOWS
Microsoft (MS) Corporation personal computer (PC) operating system (OS). Microsoft introduced this OS in 1985 and it continues to be widely used despite competition from Apple’s Macintosh OS. As with other operating systems, Windows provides a computer system user-friendly interface that provides a graphical display. It also organizes information for easy access and retrieval. The OS uses icons and tools to simplify complex operations executed by the PCs. Industry surveys state that the Windows operating system is in 90% of the personal computers world-wide.
Versions of MS – Windows
Some important versions of MS windows are as follows
Windows NT (New Technology)
Microsoft Windows NT is an operating system. The first published version was Microsoft Windows NT 3.1, in 1993. It had a similar interface to Windows 3.1, with advanced networking capabilities and hardware support. In August 1996 Microsoft released Windows NT 4.0 with an interface similar to Windows 95. Windows NT was later replaced by Windows 2000; however, it still had the Windows NT kernel.
• It is based on High level language
• it is able to run on DOS , windows 3 and Win 32 Applications.
• It has32 bit windows applications.
• It uses preemptive multitasking.
• It provides higher stability and security.
Code-named Chicago, Windows 95 is an operating system released by Microsoft in August 1995. It is the biggest release of Windows ever and still one of the most successful software releases ever.
• It is a mixed of 16-bit/32-bit windows operating system.
• It is consumer oriented.
• It support graphical user interface operating system.
• It supports FAT32 file system, multi display, web TV and the internet explorer.
Windows 98 is an operating system released by Microsoft Corp in 1998 as an upgrade to Windows 95. Windows 98 was code named “Memphis” during development and was, at one point, called “Windows 97″ based on an earlier production schedule
• Protection – Windows 98 includes additional protection for important files on your computer such as backing up your registry automatically.
• Improved support – Improved support for new devices and technologies such as ACPI, AGP, IEEE 1394, DVD, USB, and MMX.
• Support for Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)
• Support for a new industry-standard form of power management called Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
Windows ME, short for Windows Millennium Edition, is an operating system released by Microsoft on June 19, 2000.
• Revert to backup of computer – Restore system files to an early copy in case files became corrupted or deleted.
• Protect important system files – Protect important system files and will not allow these files to be modified by any other software.
• Movie editor – Allows users to edit and combine Microsoft movie files. Importing movies requires additional hardware.
• Windows Media Player – Includes Windows Media Player 7, which enables users a more advanced way of listening and organizing their media files.
Windows XP is an operating system that was first released on October 25, 2001, by Microsoft and designed to help bridge the gap between Windows 9x/ME and Windows NT/2000.
• New interface – A completely new look and ability to change the look.
• Updates – A new feature that automatically obtains updates from the Internet.
• Internet Explorer 6 – Includes Internet Explorer 6 and new IM.
• Multilingual support – Added support for different languages.
• Increase reliability when compared to previous versions of Microsoft Windows.
Released to the public on January 30, 2007, Windows Vista is the successor to Windows XP in Microsoft’s Windows line of operating systems.
• Basic file backup and restore.
• File encryption.
• Improved DVD support with the ability to create custom DVD movies.
• Improved parental controls.
• Improved photo gallery and control of photographs.
• Instant search available through all Explorer windows.
Windows 7 is an operating system released by Microsoft on October 22, 2009. It follows the previous (sixth) version of Windows, called Windows Vista. Windows 7 has a graphical user interface (GUI) that allows you to interact with items on the screen using a keyboard and mouse. However.
• Windows Touch” that supports touchscreen input and multitouch functionality.
• 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor.
• 1 GB of RAM or 2 GB of RAM for the 64-bit version
• It provides touch , speech, handwriting recognition.
• it provides multiple firewall.
Windows 8 is the latest version of Microsoft’s Windows operating system. It was released on October 26, 2012, and is the first major update to Windows since Windows 7, which was released over three years earlier.
• Store – New app store that allows you to install Windows apps.
• 32-bit and 64-bit – Windows 8 is available to be installed as either 32-bit or 64-bit.
• Improved Windows Defender – Improved Windows Defender with antivirus capabilities.
• USB 3.0 support – Native support for USB 3.0.
• Xbox Live – Microsoft has also built Windows 8 with Xbox Live integration in mind.
Windows 10 is a major version of the Microsoft Windows operating system that was released on July 29, 2015. It is built on the Windows NT kernel and follows Windows 8.
1.It is easy to used social media sites like Facebook, Twitter.
2.Windows 10 will also Include a “game DVR” mode to allow recordings of the last 30 Seconds of play , all better for the social gaming.
3. Windows 10 interface to adapt based on the hardware it is running on.
The desktop is the primary user interface of a computer. When you boot up your computer, the desktop is displayed once the startup process is complete. It includes the desktop background (or wallpaper) and icons of files and folders you may have saved to the desktop. In Windows, the desktop includes a task bar, which is located at the bottom of the screen by default. In Mac OS X, the desktop includes a menu bar at the top of the screen and the Dock at the bottom. A small arrow or blinking symbol, moving on the desktop , is called cursor. Desktop contains start menu , Task bar , icons , gadgets etc .
Some important components of desktop are organised as follows
An icon is a small graphical representation of a program or file. When you double-click an icon, the associated file or program will be opened. For example, if you were to double-click on the My Computer icon, it would open Windows Explorer. Icons are a component of GUI operating systems, including Apple macOS X and Microsoft Windows. Icons help users quickly identify the type of file represented by the icon. The image to the right is an example of “My Computer” icons in different versions of Microsoft Windows.
Some of the icons displayed on the desktop are as follows
(a) Computer :- It is the most important icon on the desktop , which contains icons of document folders, hard disk’s partition, each removable disk drive . e.g. Floppy disk , CD , DVD, etc. It also allows the users to access drives , printers , removable disk or other system Applications . It is the main part of our window where all the programs and software backup are stored.
(b) Recycle Bin:- the Recycle Bin is a location where deleted files or folders are temporarily stored in every version of Microsoft Windows since Windows 95. The Recycle Bin allows users to recover files that have been deleted in Windows. It is located on the desktop. The image to the right is an example of what the Recycle Bin may look like in your version of Windows.
(c) Network:- A network is a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices, peripherals, or other devices connected to one another to allow the sharing of data
(d) Documents :- A computer document is a file created by a software application. While the term “document” originally referred specifically to word processor documents, it is now used to refer to all types of saved files. Therefore, documents may contain text, images, audio, video, and other types of data.
The taskbar is an element of an operating system located at the bottom of the screen. It allows you to locate and launch programs through Start and the Start menu, or view any program that is currently open. The taskbar first introduced with Microsoft Windows 95 and can be found in all subsequent versions of Windows. It also allows them to check the date and time, items running in the background through the Notification Area,and with early versions of Windows access to the Quick Launch.
• The Start Button–Opens the menu.
• The Quick Launch bar–contains shortcuts to commonly used applications. Use this to avoid cluttering up your desktop with application shortcuts. If you don’t use it, you can remove it .
• The main Taskbar–displays icons for all open applications and files.
• The System Tray–contains the clock and icons for some of the programs running in the background.
The Microsoft Windows Start menu is the primary location in Windows to locate your installed programs and find any files or folders. By default, the Start menu is accessed by clicking Start, which has the Windows logo on it and is located in the bottom-left corner of the Windows desktop screen.
Start menu have following options
(a) Program :- It contains a list of installed programs. When we installed any software , it automatically shows in this menu.
(b) favourites:- It is a collections of book marked web pages .
(c) Documents:- It shows a list of most recently opened documents .
(d) Setting :- It includes control panel , printers, Taskbar etc.
(e) Find:- It searches for specific files or folders .
(f) Log off:- It provides a password to protect from unauthorised access.
(g) Turn off (Shut down):- To shut Down or restart the system.
The some parts of the windows are as follows
The title bar is a bar located at the top of a window or a dialog box that displays the name of the window or software program being used. Title bar Contains atleast
three small button, close button At the right edge of the title bar, there is a square containing a called the close button. It helps to terminate the running program the standard title bar has a minimize, maximize, and close button, usually located on the right side.
A vertical or horizontal bar commonly located on the far right or bottom of a window that allows you to move the window viewing area up, down, left, or right. Most people today are familiar with scroll bars because of the need to scroll up and down in almost every Internet web page.
The menu bar consists of several options as follows
• file Menu : Contains options like New, Open, Close, Save, Save as print , etc.
• Edit Menu : Contains Options like Undo, Cut Copy ,Paste, Clear etc.
• View Menu : Like Normal, toolbar , Print Layout etc.
• Insert Menu : Contains options Like Header , Footer etc.
• Help Menu For Tutorials or helpful informations.
A dialog box is a common type of window in the GUI of an operating system. It displays information, and asks a user for input.
Main programs Inside the Window
• Notepad: It is a text editor program . Notepad is most commonly used to the edit or view text files. The file format of Notepad files is .txt (text document).
• WordPad: Microsoft WordPad is a free rich text editor first including some few features such as complex formatting, pictures.
• Paint: A paint program is a software graphics program that allows the user to draw or paint bitmapped images on a computer.
• Calculator: It performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.
• Media Player: Window media player is an easy to use interface to play digital media files, organise digital media collection, burn CDs, etc.
• Game: Window have some games like Chess titans , hearts, Freecell, Mahjong titans , Purble place , Solitairs ,Spider solitairs , etc.